The most important areas which Eratosthenes mentioned were Asia, Africa, the Alps, the United States, Scotland, France, Germany, Italy, China, the Philippines, South America, the Nile, the Euphrates, the Indus, and theyx. The main problems which he had to deal with in his time were the lack of maps or charts, the difficulty of reaching the main areas, and the accurate determination of latitudes and longitude. It was not until the 14th century that cartography was introduced, as a part of an extensive geographic research. The main articles of this new geography are cartography, topography, gastronomy, cartographical information systems, statistical cartography, and girdling.
Cartography deals with visual representations of geographical regions. For instance, a cartographic image of London shows the routes which the population of London takes from the railway station to all its important places of business. Geoastronomy deals with the study of Earth’s geological structure and its relation to the solar system and other space vehicles.
Cartography deals with the study of physical phenomena, while geology deals with the formation of those phenomena on earth. Global warming is just one of these geology-related phenomena. Geographers have studied and recorded the movement of tectonic plates over time, and have found many fault lines that may mean we are in a stage of accelerating change. Part of the study involves measuring the tilt of magnetic fields.
Geographical information systems are computer software programs that are used to manage and display large sets of physical data. This can include latitude and longitude readings, for a very large set of geographical areas. These computer programs have made it much easier for people to monitor changes in land masses, to map the world on a planetary level, or to monitor climate change. Geography also incorporates scientific knowledge. There are many scientific disciplines associated with the study of geography.
One of these disciplines is physical geography. Geographers take measurements of the physical features of landscapes using specialized instruments such as GPS technology, satellite photos, and photographic documentation. They compare these measurements to the documented descriptions of the features in order to establish the true shape and size of an object. Geographers design scientific research that is based on measurements of real world physical features such as surface elevations, topography, and elevations of mountain peaks.
Geography and earth science departments at schools take a close interest in cartography. Cartographers create digital maps from digital models of the world. They can then be used to help people decide how to lay out streets, how to build roads, and how to regulate population density and development. This allows the designers and administrators of governmental structures to properly plan for future growth. This planning can help the city or county to manage resources so that the citizens enjoy a quality life.
A related field to geography that has become popular in recent years is the political geography. Political Geography studies political phenomena such as political campaign strategies, public opinion, and demographic trends. Geographers are often hired by political campaigns to develop demographic maps and to monitor voter turnout. Because the voting rates and voting trends can significantly change a county or even a state’s political future, political geographers are often hired to keep track of these changing trends.